« "Extraordinary Critique": Peter Cowling of Art Connect Interviews Catherine Spaeth | Main | The Strategic Museum: George Tooker in Columbus, Ohio and the Value of the National Academy Museum in New York »
Friday
Mar062009

Emptiness is the New Absolute: theanyspacewhatever and Ann Hamilton at the Guggenheim


“A giant wave,” is how Frank Lloyd Wright described the Guggenheim, its spiral sweeping away all corners and walls for an unobstucted vision. In 1959, sheer opticality was the Modernist Absolute and painting was its model. In 1971 Daniel Buren's Peinture/Sculpture sliced clear through the center of this unobstructed vision, but was removed before the public could see its perceived violence to the space of exhibition. However, by the late ‘80s a critique of the hegemony of vision made many an academic career.

The recent exhibition "theanyspacewhatever" was a good attempt to consider what it means to hold an exhibition at the Guggenheim in our time. I can only imagine Pierre Huyghe’s Opening from the photograph: Donning my battery-powered miner’s hat in the darkened space of the museum; gradually adjusting to the disconnect betwen the eyes in my head and the orb of light emitted from the lamp above them; losing this orb in a mass of others bobbing across the distance and chasing across the walls and floor; viewing an object in the light of a gathering upon it. This awareness of one's own vision cut away from the self and in play with others is visible to me in the photograph. Viewers'orbs of light echo the moonless and star-filled sky above - Angela Bulloch's Firmamental Night Sky: Oculus 12.

In the course of the exhibition as a whole, leisure took over as a pleasant meandering, a mood in which aesthetic criteria vanish with a casual yes to everything. The “objects” themselves were so slight and so variously and deliberately placed to the furthest edges of the space at the center that the exibition felt as well-designed as a movie soundtrack, barely noticeable but for the occasional shift in action or place, its parameters finely tuned. Here, Maurizio Cattelan's newstand tucked in a remote service corner and offering "The Wrong Times," loaded with interviews between contemporary artists.

The title of the exhibition , "theanyspacewhatever", carried with it a tone of idle disinterest and a lack of care for place and historicity. Much has been made of the globalizing tendencies of the '90s, and the title is a fine enough expression of this. But it is also a reference to the empty spaces that take the place of - serve the broken - narrative in contemporary film. Empty spaces characterized this exhibition to the extent that whatever objects there were between them - what in a conventional exhibition would have been the art - were felt more as forms of punctuation, discrete events that served to amplify the emptiness of space.

"Theanyspacewhatever" is in fact a Deleuzian term, meaning "a space of virtual conjunction, grasped as a pure locus of the possible."* The apparent opposition between a flippant expression, "any space whatever," and the more utopian dream of the possible, has the feel of a carelessness turning away from effort, without tension or traction. Elsewhere in this exhibition such an opposition feels more like duplicity. This sense is borne by the words ARE WE EVIL, a declarative interrogative emblazoned by Douglas Gordon on the floor of the rotunda, both a chilling statement for our time and the snide commentary of a prankster to those who are in on the joke.

Emptiness has different values - in a strictly Western sense it can mean that something is simply not there, or that it rings hollow. But in Asian philosophy there can be very different senses of emptiness, and different stakes set out in one's relation to it. Here is Rirkrit Tiravanija, interviewed by Mary Jane Jacobs in 2004 about his artistic practice and Buddhism. Jacobs asked if Tiravanija's work is about “trust, allowing a work to connect to people in their own way, suspending judgment?” To which he replied:

I think the idea of judgment is interesting in relation to Buddhistic practice. I always get asked, “What are your expectations?” And I say, “ I don’t have any,” because I don’t predetermine things. And, “Do you feel it’s succesful or not?” and I say, “I don’t measure things that way, in terms of good or bad, or success.” It changes how you look at what happens. And I think that is quite important in terms of living in a Buddhistic way: not to have preconceived structures or to close off possibilities; but it’s not even about being open or closed; it’s just about being blank. In a way, of course, you can receive more if you are empty.**



Tiravanija’s work does circumvent expectations and notions of success by being so out of place in its ordinariness that aesthetic criteria are no longer relevant. There is a politics to this, a critique of a productivist society that refuses to labor and seeks exoneration in the always mediated context of the the everyday. In terms of his own practice, formerly characterized by dishing out Thai curry to gallery and museum visitors around the world, Tiravanija upped the ante at the Guggenheim by having illy caffee do his work for him, a company already known for marketing its product in a gallery setting. From the Illy website:

Illy Gallery is an on-going timed event, a happening that’s adjourned in one venue in some place of the world, and then gets going again in another venue in some other place. These venues are places where visitors and patrons can get to know all the products, forms of expression, passions and people that go to make up the world of illy, places where they can experience and get a rare taste of things beautiful and rich in flavour, and discover art and culture at their best.



Strolling at our leisure through the Guggenheim we were asked to and we did suspend our judgment and seamlessly entered the “world of illy.” In fact Cinema Liberte/Bar Lounge (1996- ) is an ongoing collaboration with Douglas Gordon - on the other side of the partition were clips from censored films. The press release stated that "...this installation invokes concepts of political, social and artistic freedom, " and that "it has been made possible by the generous contribution of illy caffee." On one side of the partition, then, was an already long-playing liberation from censorship, and on the other the seamlessness of a life that is produced for us by a globalizing lifestyle culture of refinement and ease. Something like a contradiction is on display, but there is no real contradiction here, no traction at all. The space of opposition has been evacuated, is empty and blank.

In 1984 T.J. Clark wrote about Manet's A Bar at the Folies-Bergere (1882) as an expression of the blase attitude, a recently emerged public demeanor that he describes as arriving upon the heels of public censorship in late nineteenth century France. Popular cultural expression in the cafe concert halls lost the resistant political inflections inside of double entendre, and scepticism about social relations took its place. Lifestyle as a commodity appeared in this moment, and Clark cites Georg Simmel, who described the blase attitude as a psychic mood reflecting the neutrality of money, how it "hollows out the core of things, their peculiarities, their specific values and their uniqueness in a way which is beyond repair." The blank look of Manet's barmaid and the skewed mirror reflection displacing the viewer leads Clark to write that "Doubts about looking accumulate...all reinforcing one another. What begins as a series of limited questions about relationships in space is likely to end as scepticism about relations in general."***

Tiravanija's work does not function as Manet's Bar to disturb our social relations into a quandary of doubt and scepticism as to appearances. Rather, there is a loose certainty projected upon us, and confidence that any questions about the status of illy caffee as art will be appeased, lulled by social relations. The extended psychic mood that has us drifting from marquis to magazine rack to headphones, etc., has the consistency of our pedestrian nods to others in an increasingly franchised world, and this includes the Guggenheim itself.

The strongest criticism of this kind of work so far has been that of Claire Bishop in her essay "Antagonism and Relational Aesthetics," published in 2004. Bishop's claim is that a well-functioning democracy relies upon critical antagonism and that Tiravanija's work in particular is lacking critical consciousness, offering instead a placating and false - produced, in fact - sense of community.**** Bishop is also worrying over the loss of contemplation as a valued experience in viewing a work of art, and that social production has taken it place.

Currently on view at the Guggenheim, and in an exhibition that is handed over entirely to contemplation, is Ann Hamilton's human carriage, 2009. The title is very much about how we carry ourselves in the world, and the work itself offers an alternate model of emptiness. As with Tiravanija's Bar Lounge there is in human carriage a visible laborer, tending to the balance of the machinery she operates. At the top of the spiral of the Guggenheim, she hangs from a carrier Buddhist texts that have been sliced apart and rebound as dangling packages of fragments. These are then lowered to a holding place just above the dry pond in the lobby. A small carriage on wheels is then sent off down the spiral of the Guggenheim, suspended from wheels that glide along a rail attached to the balustrade exterior. When it meets the holding place at the end of the spiraling rail the text fragments are released and fall into the dry pond below. All the way down, whenever there is a bit of extra traction, tilt, or movement of air a pair of bells suspended from the carriage will hit each other and ring.

In the week after September 11th, and just prior to her collaborative performance with Meredith Monk, mercy, I interviewed Ann Hamilton. At the time she was worrying over an installation conceived in previous months, involving papers that fell from the ceiling. I wrote in my review of the performance:

...with her worries of opportunism in mind, it is striking that somewhere between our conversation and the performance of mercy, Hamilton and Monk took the risk of concluding with a spellbinding performance of catastrophe as papers falling from above. Swooping, spiraling or floating, their shadows as tangible as the actual, different temporal layers filled the air. It may be that the success of mercy will be measured by how, or even if, the socially and embodied immersion in catastrophe has a power that both exceeds and informs the actual and political specifics of our present time.*****

It took months of standing atop a ladder to achieve the right float of paper on air, and this subsequently became the foundation of corpus at MassMOCA in 2004, where 7 million sheets of paper were dropped from the ceiling of a room the size of a football field. Joe Thompson the director of MassMOCA, described it as "haunting and, in the end, liturgical, but without liturgy."******

Removed by time from the catastrophe of the World Trade Centers and without the same sense of time adrift that one gets from a falling sheet of paper, human carriage is a different sort of utterance, addressing the space of the Guggenheim and the context of the show. It is nearly as though human carriage is passing through the works in the exhibition in acknowledgment and without attachment. These packages of text are an expression of the value of language and translation in Buddhist thought. The effort to balancing in human carriage is similar to the description offered by Dogen, a 13th century Zen master, of the fairness of the Chinese steelyard - here is an image from EBay:

Writes Dogen, "In emptiness [the steelyard] embodies equilibrium; fairness is the great principle of the steelyard. By virtue of this principle of fairness we weigh emptiness and things; whether it be emptiness or form [we weigh it to] meet fairness."******* Emptiness, then, is not an evacuation of the world and of judgment towards an ideal blank, but is in the effortless effort of calibration, with the sense of buoyancy that one feels in the steelyard above. Hanging in the balance, discernment in human action expounds freely as though from the open mouth of a bell. Hamilton's own work, so quickly leaving behind initial worries of opportunism in the political context of catastrophe, has been able to follow the path of its own weight in emptiness. When human carriage descends, the famous void of the Guggenheim is crowded by the faces at its edges, attentive to just this moment that the bells will ring.

By Catherine Spaeth


*Gilles Deleuze, Cinema I: The Movement Image, Trans. Hugh Tomlinson and Barbara Habberjam, London and New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2001, pp. 107-10, as cited in Nancy Spector, "theanyspacewhatever: An Exhibition in Parts," exh. cat., Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation 2008, p. 16.
** in The Third Mind: American Artists Contemplate Asia, 1860-1989, exh. cat., Guggenheim Museum, c.2009, p. 21.
***T.J. Clark,Painting in Modern Life: Paris in the Art of Manet and His Followers, Princeton, c.1984, p. 251.
****Calire Bishop, "Antagonism and Relational Aesthetics," in October 110, Fall 2004, pp. 51-79.
*****Catherine Spaeth, "mercy: An Interview With Ann Hamilton,: in Dialogue Magazine, November/December, 2001, pp. 49-51
******Annette Grant, "Art: Let 7 Million Sheets of Paper Fall, NYT Sunday April 11th, 2004. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D03EEDA1638F932A25757C0A9629C8B63
*******As translated by Hee-Jin Kim, in "Weighing Emptiness," Dogen on Meditation and Thinking: A Reflection on His View of Zen, SUNY, c. 2007, p. 42.

Image Credits:Daniel Buren's Peinture/Sculpture before it was removed from the "Guggenheim International Exhibition" at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in 1971, photo Robert E. Mates and Paul Katz, c.SRGF, NY; Pierre Huyghe, OPENING, Installation view, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 2008,© Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation New York. Photo by Kristopher McKay; Angela Bulloch, Firmamental Night Sky: Oculus 12, 2008, LEDs (light-emitting diodes), neoprene, animated program, control gear, structural elements, power suppliers, and various cables, Courtesy Esther Schipper, Berlin and Galerie Eva Presenhuber, Zurich, Installation view, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 2008, © Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation New York. Photo by David Heald; The Wrong Gallery, The Wrong Times, 2004–06 (reprinted 2008), Newspaper, Installation view, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 2008, Photo: Kristopher McKay, © The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, New York; Douglas Gordon and Rirkrit Tiravanija, Cinèma Libertè/Bar Lounge, First realized 1996,Made possible by illy caffè,Installation view, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 2008,© Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation New York. Photo by David Heald; A Bar at the Folies-Bergère (detail), Édouard Manet, 1882, The Samuel Courtauld Trust, Courtauld Institute of Art Gallery, London; Ann Hamilton, human carriage, 2009, Installation composed of cloth, wire, bells, books, string, pipe, pulleys, pages, cable, gravity, air, and sound, Courtesy the artist, photos by photographer David Heald, © Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation.

References (1)

References allow you to track sources for this article, as well as articles that were written in response to this article.
  • Response
    Response: roacelc
    boccnapasal

Reader Comments (18)

I agree with you that It is nearly as though human carriage is passing through the works in the exhibition in acknowledgment and without attachment.

March 23, 2010 | Unregistered CommenterJulius

I really enjoyed the firmental night sky picture. Photographing stained glass and other glass pieces has been one of our most challenging issues.

July 19, 2011 | Unregistered Commenterstained glass guru

Collections from the design labels such as abercrombie uk and other beauty are released after every six months. With every new launch, a new abercrombie sale technology is developed. This had led to making abercrombie and fitch uk sale remain competitive in the International market. The entire abercrombie and fitch uk packaging process is paid into detail to enhance the collections quality and appearance. This ensures that the abercrombie and fitch sale is properly safeguard from harsh weather conditions so that the buyer gets it when it's as new as it ought to be. abercrombie and fitch are usually packaged in cartons and smaller boxes which are beautifully decorated with artwork and carrying the company label. Other than flaunting abercrombie & fitch sale, the reason behind this is to make the collections customer friendly. This applies the most when shipping has to be done and the type of thomas sabo uk packaging is used to determine the packaging cost. High quality packaging of thomas sabo, watches, earrings and other help protect them from getting dust or moisture from the environment. When people see a buyer carrying a bag with the thomas sabo bracelet of the company, they will definitely get attracted and pulled towards with an urge to get the same. thomas sabo charms also enhances flexibility in transport. If the thomas sabo jewellery has a good shape, it will be much manageable to transport and distribute. This is highly paid much to details because the thomas sabo sale company has stores all over the world and a slight mistake can end up destroying the whole collection.

July 22, 2011 | Unregistered Commenterabercrombie and fitch

In this modern and fashionable society, people are pursuing for links of London cool, unique, stylish and innovative. Whether it is links of london uk or fashion accessories all means a lot for modern society of today. Same is the case with trendy looking tiffany jewellery uk. When these are tiffany and co, the excitement just gets doubled. Most chic looking tiffany co jewellery are in fashion now. These are one of the favorite fashion accessories for men and women long time ago.

September 2, 2011 | Unregistered CommenterTiffany jewellery

UGG 人気 When I was a アグ ブーツ puppy, UGG ブーツ I entertained replica bags outlet you with my antics abercrombie men and made you abercrombie laugh. You called me abercrombie uk shop your child, abercrombie and fitch uk and despite a number UGG店舗 of chewed shoes UGG 通販 and a couple UGG激安 of murdered throw pillows アグ, I became your UGG best friend. Whenever プラダ メンズ 靴 新作 I was "bad," ボッテガヴェネタ激安 you'd shake your ボッテガヴェネタ通販 finger at me and 腕時計ブランド ask "How could 高級腕時計 you?"-but then ロレックス 時計 you'd relent, ロレックス コピー and roll me over ロレックス 時計 for a belly rub. ブランド 時計 My housebreaking 時計 ブランド took a little longer than 時計 コピー expected, because you 腕時計 コピー were terribly busy, but we worked on that together. I remember those nights of nuzzling you in bed and listening ブランド 腕時計 to your confidences and secret dreams, and I believed that life could not be ボッテガヴェネタ靴 any more perfect. プラダ メンズ靴 通販 We went for long walks and プラダ メンズ靴 激安 runs in the park, アグ 店舗 car rides, ブランドUGG stops for UGG 靴 ice cream (I only got the cone UGG オーストラリア because "ice cream is bad for abercrombie uk dogs," you said), and I took abercrombie uk online long naps in the sun abercrombie women waiting for you replica bags to come home bag store online at the end UGG 通販 of the day UGG 新作.

September 14, 2011 | Unregistered CommenterUGG ブーツ

Knockoff designer handbags on our online shop,you can wholesale replica handbags with low price and free shipping,our cheap replica handbags are AAA quality and popular styles,enjoy your shopping now!

we offers large amounts of newest and best fake designer handbags , Each high quality Replica Chanel Handbags comes in a great variety of colors and models. The most amazing thing is the superior quality and the similar design as the replica designer jewelry which help us win many customers' praises. Moreover, we still take proud in our competitive price and the best service! Created by Thomas Burberry in 1856, Burberry enjoys a long history of fashion. It is one of the oldest designer brands. knockoff handbags represents luxury and it enjoys a strong global recognition. If you want to wholesale replica handbags, undoubtly, the finest knockoff jewelry are the best choice for you! You are surely going to turn many heads by carrying these beautiful replica designer handbags around!</p>

<p> </p>frdew"" title="">

September 25, 2011 | Unregistered Commenterknockoff handbags

What is so extraordinary and unusual when it comes to abercrombie is that you have an option to pick and select your own to be attached onto the of your preference. Just in the range of abercrombie and fitch uk, it provides options of a standard or you could opt for the obsidian. Once you select the bracelet, then you select the charms to be supplemented onto the bracelet. You will have so many options to choose from the abercrombie uk that it may just get very difficult for you to make a choice. Well the abercrombie & fitch sale are not limited to the use of bracelets; they can be used on as well. They can be easily hooked on to the burberry outlet. So you have accessory which is versatile. One of things appreciated by it's fans is the versatility of burberry handbags. To attach your special burberry outlet store there is a sterling silver link provided which can hold up to three charms. The good thing is that the chloe bags online is easy to take on and off. So my suggestion to all of those who are considering chloe bags sale as a gift for your loved ones for any special occasion would be to definitely check out their amazing. The collection is so huge and with lots of variety that you are sure to find chloe handbags sale for everyone. So your wait for a good piece of Cheap Chloe bags ends with the variety offered.

September 29, 2011 | Unregistered Commenterabercrombie and fitch

That's really a great point to bring up. im very impresing for this :)

Buy Valium Online

October 11, 2011 | Unregistered Commenterdavid

component of a group

Like mentioned earlier, check out refund guidelines also just before you decide to do your booking.Are you entitled for a refund? What once the weather problems do not permit the hunt to acquire place? Can the dates for the hunt be preponed or postponed once the birds migrate just before or later?
christian louboutin coat
in Texas is controlled by seasoned hunters who have years of experience at the rear of them. They use a method called "by the gun" to dictate their expenditures for providers rendered. Whether you are heading as an particular or as component of a group, each one is charged separately. Depending on whether the hunt is simply for half-a-day or a complete day, a flat rate needs to be paid by each individual. There are guides who go in for weekly rates, but need clarity concerning every thing just before you decide to shell out a whole lot of income for an entire week of hunting.
canada goose
is constantly to be booked in advance; so the guidebook can also be booked in advance. Your guide, like a few others, may also offer certain supplies and equipment for the hunt. They generally include clothing that work as camouflage or white suits that blend using the surroundings. In fact, camouflage apparel differ based close to the weather since it may be quite unpredictable..YQ

October 13, 2011 | Unregistered Commenternorthen

Many thanks for making the sincere effort to explain this. I feel fairly strong about it and would like to read more. If it's OK, as you find out more in depth knowledge, would you mind writing more posts similar to this one with more information?

Wow...wonderful photos! and thanks sharing for the post

November 10, 2011 | Unregistered CommenterTile

We all know ed hardy, Ed hardy clothing is fantastic; especially ed hardy uk is now in the vogue. Ed hardy t-shirts are adored by young people of character. On the beach, ed hardy are their best choice, together with ed hardy shoes. Women like to wear ed hardy hoodies because they are cozy and convenient. When embellished with ed hardy jeans, no one can refuse to turn around to have a look. If you want to choose a sexy but unique ed hardy swimwear for women, ed hardy shop is your best choice. If you are worrying about wearing dress at the party, ed hardy dresses are prepared for you.

The fashion trend always tends to be different to people’s concept. Some weird ideas have been on their way such as ed hardy t-shirts, including ed hardy mens long sleeve shirt, ed hardy mens short sleeve shirt. People hardly know that tattoos are originated from ed hardy. But it is the truth. Thanks to the founder ed hardy, we are available to wear such distinctive ed hardy mens shoes and ed hardy mens polo, ed hardy mens jacket, ed hardy mens tees and ed hardy mens jeans, to go our own way. ed hardy cheap shirts, ed hardy short sleeve shirt, ed hardy long sleeve shirt, ed hardy woman shoes and ed hardy tank top, ed hardy intimates are also printed with pictures like animals or something else is never monotonous. Also women are reluctant to show weakness, sexy ed hardy Womens Top and ed hardy womens sandals are the best example, along with ed hardy womens bottoms and ed hardy womens jeans, ed hardy womens hoodies, ed hardy womens outerwear. Of cause, the most familiar suit is ed hardy kids t-shirts including ed hardy boys t-shirts and ed hardy girls t-shirts, and arranged with ed hardy kids hoodies. It is suitable for both men and women.

November 13, 2011 | Unregistered Commentershufujun

<p>I have felt timberland waterproof boots was my duty to persevere -- to make every possible effort to complete the term of office to which you elected me. In the past few days, however, it has become evident to me that timberland boots uk no longer have a strong enough political base in the Congress to justify continuing that effort. as long as there was such a base, I felt strongly that timberland work boots was necessary to see the constitutional process through to its conclusion; that to do otherwise would be unfaithful to the spirit of that womens timberland boots deliberately difficult process, and a dangerously destabilizing precedent for the future. But with the disappearance of that base, I now believe that the constitutional timberland kids boots has been served. and there is no longer a need for the process to be prolonged. I would have preferred to carry through to the finish whatever the personal agony discount timberland boots would have involved, and my family unanimously urged me to do so. But the interests of the nation must always come before any personal considerations. From the discussions cheap timberland boots have had with Congressional and other leaders I have concluded that because of the Watergate matter I might not have the support of the Congress that timberland pro boots would consider necessary to back the very difficult decisions and carry out the duties of this office in the way the interests of timberland 6-inch premium boots</SPaN> will require. america needs a full-time President and a full-time Congress, particularly at this time with problems we face at home and abroad. To continue to fight through the months ahead for my personal timberland classic boots would almost totally absorb the time and attention of both the President and the Congress in a period when our timberland hiking boots focus should be on the great issues of peace abroad and prosperity without inflation at home. LJP</p>
<p align="center"></p>
<p>timberland on sale</p>
<p>timberland leisure shoes</SPaN></p>
<p>timberland pro work boots</p>

November 19, 2011 | Unregistered Commentertimberland1973

We have every right to dream heroic Karen Milen Sale dreams. Those who say that we’re in a time when there are no heroes -- timberland classic boot just don’t know where to look. You can see heroes every day going in and out of factory gates. Others, a handful in number, produce enough food to feed all of us and then Karen Millen Multicolor beyond. You meet heroes across a counter -- and they’re on both sides of that counter. Karen Millen Shop for women are entrepreneurs with faith in themselves and faith in an idea who create new jobs, new wealth and opportunity.

December 26, 2011 | Unregistered CommenterKaren Milen Sale

PostPost a New Comment

Enter your information below to add a new comment.

My response is on my own website »
Author Email (optional):
Author URL (optional):
Post:
 
Some HTML allowed: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <code> <em> <i> <strike> <strong>